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Emission Standards

The following table contains a summary of the emission standards and their implementation dates.

Table 1
EU Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines, g/kWh (smoke in m-1)

Tier

Date & Category

Test Cycle

CO

HC

NOx

PM

Smoke

Euro I

1992, <85 kW

ECE R-49

4.5

1.1

8.0

0.612


1992, >85 kW

4.5

1.1

8.0

0.36


Euro II

1996.10

4.0

1.1

7.0

0.25


1998.10

4.0

1.1

7.0

0.15


Euro III

1999.10, EEVs only

ESC & ELR

1.5

0.25

2.0

0.02

0.15

2000.10

ESC & ELR

2.1

0.66

5.0

0.10 
0.13*

0.8

Euro IV

2005.10

1.5

0.46

3.5

0.02

0.5

Euro V

2008.10

1.5

0.46

2.0

0.02

0.5

* - for engines of less than 0.75 dm3 swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3000 min-1

Changes in the engine test cycles have been introduced in the Euro III standard (year 2000). The old steady-state engine test cycle ECE R-49 will be replaced by two cycles: a stationary cycle ESC (European Stationary Cycle) and a transient cycle ETC (European Transient Cycle). Smoke opacity is measured on the ELR (European Load Response) test.

For the type approval of new vehicles with diesel engines according to the Euro III standard (year 2000), manufacturers have the choice between either of these tests. For type approval according to the Euro IV (year 2005) limit values and for EEVs, the emissions have to be determined on both the ETC and the ESC/ELR tests.

Emission standards for diesel engines that are tested on the ETC test cycle, as well as for heavy-duty gas engines, are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2
Emission Standards for Diesel and Gas Engines, ETC Test, g/kWh

 

Tier

Date & Category

Test Cycle

CO

NMHC

CH4a

NOx

PMb

Euro III

1999.10, EEVs only

ETC

3.0

0.40

0.65

2.0

0.02

2000.10

ETC

5.45

0.78

1.6

5.0

0.16 
0.21c

Euro IV

2005.10

4.0

0.55

1.1

3.5

0.03

Euro V

2008.10

4.0

0.55

1.1

2.0

0.03

 

a - for natural gas engines only 
b - not applicable for gas fueled engines at the year 2000 and 2005 stages 
c - for engines of less than 0.75 dm3 swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3000 min-1

EU Member States will be allowed to use tax incentives in order to speed up the marketing of vehicles meeting the new standards. Such incentives have to comply with the following conditions:

     

  • they apply to all new vehicles offered for sale on the market of a Member State which comply in advance with the mandatory limit values set out by the Directive,

     

  • they cease when the new limit values come into effect (i.e. in 2000, 2005 or 2008)

     

  • for each type of vehicle they do not exceed the additional cost of the technical solutions introduced to ensure compliance with the limit values.

     

A new proposal, to be submitted by the European Commission by 31 December 2000, should include:

     

  • rules pertaining to the introduction of an on-board diagnostic system (OBD) for heavy-duty vehicles from October 1, 2005 (similarly as provided for in Directive 98/69/EC on the reduction of exhaust emissions from passenger cars and light commercial vehicles),

     

  • provisions on the durability of emission control devices with effect from October 1, 2005 (to ensure that they operate correctly during the normal life of a vehicle),

     

  • provisions to ensure the conformity of in-service vehicles which are properly maintained and used,

     

  • appropriate limits for pollutants currently non-regulated as a consequence of the widespread introduction of new alternative fuels.


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